If couples have trouble in conceiving, the factors affecting are due to
- Sperm count
- Motility (speed)
- Morphology (shape) – is usual
- It might me also due to sperm.
By talking to the fertility specialist regarding DNA fragmentation of sperm, provides an insight for not getting pregnant. The possibility of a successful pregnancy is due to the high level of DNA fragmentation.
Our doctor says “Reproductive toxicants in the environment increase the level of DNA fragmentation.” Those people’s working with heavy metals like lead and nickel as well as pesticides, though, cities with high levels of documentation of miscarriages and infertility and air pollution, increases the level of sperm DNA fragmentation.
According to the research, while there presently is not any tried role for routine DNA integrity testing within the analysis of sterility, sperm cell DNA Damage is an additional common in sterile men and will have an effect on reproductive outcomes in selected pairs, together with those with repeated spontaneous miscarriage or disorder (unexplained) sterility.
Sperm DNA Fragmentation
The hereditary material, DNA, present in both humans and various other organisms. The DNA consists of polymers, which are long, made up of simple units called phosphate and sugars. In DNA, information is stored as codes, which are made up of 4 types of molecules called bases. These bases are attached to strands of DNA. The order of the bases defines the information accessible for maintain and building organisms.
If there is any change in the bases or physical break or both in the DNA strands then DNA fragmentation occurs.
The physical breakings of DNA strands in sperm chromosomes are called Sperm DNA fragmentation. If Sperm DNA fragmentation occurs in a gene, for egg growth and cannot be repaired, then the consequence leads to the death of the embryo.
Sperm DNA Fragmentation Testing
Sperm DNA Fragmentation testing is same as that of regular semen analysis method at fertility clinic. A sample of semen is taken and sent for testing at sperm DNA fragmentation centre. Test includes Halosperm kit, which is based on technique called Sperm Chromatin Decondensation. This technique is more than 100 sperm are differentiated depending upon the expanded nuclei with expansion of five grades or without expansion.
New Sperm DNA fragmentation tests are developed with the following test, which includes
- Comet test
- Tunel test and
- Light microscope based SCD test
With the precision flow cytometer instrumentation, thousands of sperm per sample have much better numerical sturdiness than light microscope tests. Sperm DNA fragmentation testing can be done in the fertility centre along with semen analysis. A fresh sample of semen is positioned in a small vial, in an cold freezer or nitrogen container to diagnostic laboratory for testing.
Currently, the SCSA is that the solely check of sperm cell DNA/chromatin that valid clinical interpretation criteria. With the SCSA check, 5,000 distinct sperm cell are rationed in a very high-precision flow cytometer. The check trials the presence of deoxyribonucleic acid strand breaks and also the proportion of sperm cell with abnormal proteins that constrain maternity success. The check regulates the proportion of sperm cell with fragmented deoxyribonucleic acid and also the degree of deoxyribonucleic acid injury and provides a deoxyribonucleic acid Fragmentation Index (DFI) score to point the probability of sperm cell tributary to sterility issues. The subsequent scores indicate fertility potential for natural conception and intrauterine insemination:
- Greater than 24% DFI: Fair to Poor fertility potential
- 14%to 24% DFI: Good to Fair fertility potential
- Less than or equal to 14% DFI: Excellent to Good fertility potential
Causes for Sperm DNA Fragmentation
In regarding 30% of couples seeking clinical examination of infertility, the lads have spermatozoon DNA fragmentation at tier that places the person into the class of an extended time to natural or IUI physiological state (greater than 24% DFI).
Oxidative stress – stress on the body that’s produced by the accumulative injury of free radicals that’s not sufficiently neutralised by antioxidants, which could be a main contributor to spermatozoan DNA fragmentation. Spermatozoon polymer fragmentation is related to infections, drug use, butt smoking, exposure to environmental and activity pollutants, advanced age, varicocele, diseases with high fevers, elevated male reproductive gland temperature (laptop computers, hot tubs), chronic diseases like polygenic disease, cancer treatment, cancer and poor diet.
The major factor contributing to sperm damage is epidemic of obesity, which is very much common among obese man or overweight person.
Treatment for Sperm DNA Fragmentation
With the growth of ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection), few fertility surgeons will not focus on the quality of the sperm as the sole sperm can be vaccinated into the egg for insemination. Few other fertility doctors will evade ICSI and try to reduce sperm DNA fragmentation to certain level, which is well-matched with natural fertility.
Other recommendations for treatment
- Discontinue smoking
- Keep the testes cool – no hot tubs or long hot baths, and wear boxer shorts
- Avoiding medications such as SSRIs
- Having healthy diet
- Examinations for urogenital infections
- Enquiring doctor about supplementary vitamins and antioxidants