A healthy egg is inevitable for successful reproduction to occur. For proper fertilization to occur, the woman produce egg & this is then to be fertilized by the sperm. In some cases, the egg might either be absent or must be of inferior quality. These conditions can decrease the chances of a successful fertilization. Methods like egg donation can be a boon in this regard. This is critical in process like IVF (In Vitro Fertilization).
In egg donation process, one or more eggs are donated by a healthy female. Egg donation might also be required in cases where the woman experiences menopause at a younger age. For those females who do not have reproductive organs like ovaries, these can be a beneficial method for having their own children. Necessity for this method can also arise due to the various damages to the reproductive organs.
Egg donors can be broadly classified into 3.
- Designated donors: These donors are either the acquaintances or relatives of the recipients.
- Anonymous donors: These donors are not known by the recipients. These individuals are mostly recruited by agencies & programs.
- Shared oocyte programmes: These programmes become relevant during IVF procedures. In such procedures, it is common to have unused eggs. These eggs may be used for 3rd party fertilization. This can also be helpful in balancing the expense incurred in IVF procedures.
A proper screening is to be done before performing egg donation. An IVF stimulation therapy is performed on the donor. After this, the egg is retrieved. The next step is fertilization. The healthiest embryo is then implanted into the uterus of the recipient. The uterine lining has to be proper in its function in order for embryo transfer to be successful. If this is also ok, the woman can now carry and deliver. The success rate of this procedure varies from 60%-80%. High success rates are encountered if a fresh cycle is followed by a frozen cycle.