In Human ejaculate, there is a dynamic interaction between anti-oxidant and pro oxidant. If ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) is low, plays an vital physiological role by modulating gene and protein activities for proliferation, function and differentiation.

There is a dynamic interplay between pro- and anti-oxidant substances in human ejaculate. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in low, controlled levels in the extracellular space play an important physiological role, modulating gene and protein activities vital for sperm proliferation, differentiation, and function. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation can overwhelm protective mechanism and initiate changes in lipid and/or protein layers of sperm plasma membranes. Additionally, changes in DNA can be induced.

Oxidative stress (OS) is outlined as a cellular condition related as disparity between the assembly of free radicals, mainly ROS, and their sifting capability by antioxidants. Once the assembly of ROS exceeds the antioxidant defence, important oxidative destruction happens to several cellular organelles by destructive proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA, so ultimately resulting in death of the cell. The Oxidative Stress-induced sperm cell destructive has been urged to be a major causative attributes in 40-70% of all circumstances of male physiological condition. The cohort of ROS may be impaired by infectious, environmental and manner aetiologies.

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