Also acknowledged as endometrial polyps, uterine polyps are soft tissue growth inside the uterus of a female. They have size variations. Some of them are small like a chia seed while others are as large as a golf ball. As per a study of the National Library of Medicine, around 24% of females have uterine polyps. Their risks of having endometrial polyps increase as they get close to their menopause.
You may or may not notice visible signs if you have uterine polyps. If your endometrial polyps are small, you might have no symptoms. However, you can notice symptoms with the growth of the same. The symptoms you may notice are as follows:
- Irregular or unpredictable menstrual periods
- Spotting and bleeding between periods
- Heavy periods
Causes of uterine polyps
Till today, medical experts have no idea what causes females to have endometrial polyps. However, most of them blame oestrogen hormones for it. There is a frequent change in your hormone levels when you are closer to menopause. Due to this hormonal imbalance, there is an increase in your oestrogen levels. Further, it causes improper growth of the endometrium, causing uterine polyps.
Miscarriage risks and impacts on fertility
Miscarriage is disappointing for couples, especially females suffering from infertility. Due to the presence of polyps in the uterus, you have an increased risk of having miscarriage. As an abnormality, polyps build inflammation in the body, especially in your uterus. And due to this, you have abnormal bleeding and irregular periods. And your uterine lining breaks or sheds down when your embryo is going to get implanted. This inflammation makes your uterus atmosphere bad for child growth and hence, leads you to face miscarriage.
Reproductive health experts diagnose endometrial polyps in around 25% of females with unexplained infertility. Apart from frequent miscarriages, uterine polyps work as a barrier in egg fertilisation by stopping sperm and egg from meeting with one another. The risk of infertility related to uterine polyps is closely associated with their sizes and numbers in the uterus.
Diagnosis and treatment
As you consult a fertility expert by noticing conception issues/delays, your doctor will ask questions about your menstrual cycles and periods. If you disclose spotting/bleeding between periods and irregular periods, the doctor will advise you to have gynaecological examinations and allied tests that could be:
- Sonohysterography - To have a clearer view of the uterus after expanding its size with the use of a tube and saline infusion
- Transvaginal ultrasound - To see the irregularities in your reproductive organs like the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
- Hysteroscopy - A diagnosis and surgical process to detect and remove abnormal tissues from the uterus
- D&C or curettage - A surgical procedure to remove polyps and tissue from the uterine wall
- Endometrial biopsy - Small tissue is taken out for checking abnormalities
Your conception chance increases with the removal of endometrial polyps through a surgical procedure such as hysteroscopic surgery. You can opt to conceive naturally or through ART treatments like IVF and IUI based on your doctor’s recommendation or diagnosis. You may need to go through treatment for more than once as polyps could return to you. In the rare case, your doctor can recommend hysterectomy to you.
You can contact us at Mannat fertility Clinic if you are facing conception issues or infertility. Through interaction, physical examination, and fertility assessment, our doctors can help you conceive a child to enjoy parenthood.